US 10,393,063
I.C.Engine Piston With Chamber
United States Patent
US 6237579

Design To Improve Turbulence In Combustion Chambers.


Somender Singh


631/A, Hyder Ali Road Nazarbad, Mysore 570010, Karnataka, India


Ph: 0821 2979018
Mb: +91 98455 36780

The Inventor And His Thinking

Nothing Comes Free

Share This Article

Except Sun Shine! ( You need to wait for that too ?)” Presenting some’ Facts ‘ about our Groovy Design ” ! “Gentlemen” you are witnessing some thing never seen before or attempted before by any one, on any kind of a cylinder head?

These Grooves or Channels or Passages were derived after hitting the limitations of present Squish or Call them Quench Pads. This came about after a lot of thinking, experiments AND plenty of ” Time and Money ” going up in smoke before an answer was found ! Very few modifications have really gone beyond the original flat surfaces or the wedged surfaces or the angled surfaces within combustion chambers except for dimpling, rippling and as some call it ‘ waving,’ to promote turbulence ? The first of our prototypes originated with a series of grooves to realize the benefits. Later we found out just one channel through the quench pads was enough to display the dramatic differences in most engines – To this day every grooved cylinder head, be it a 2 or 4 stroke, have shown positive improvements in bettering combustion qualities with the least interference of Detonation or Knock occuring under load, after this simple groove was scribed onto the face of the combustion chamber. The locations of these grooves or call them channels or passages definitely improves the displacement of the compressing charge more efficiently into the combustion chamber along with a lot more progressive turbulence being generated in the compressing charge before ignition occurs in comparison to conventional run of the mill combustion chamber designs ?

For sure some thing different has started to happen inside the cylinder after” Grooving ” due to the Turbulence it generates ? For starters ” The same spark plugs start to run cleaner with a lot lesser tail pipe emissions ” ? The tail pipes also carry a lot lesser carbon deposits too ! The other noticeable aspects are the lower idle speeds followed by enhanced torque delivery from very slow speeds onwards without hesitation under load. This has been noticed by every single person who has been fortunate to try this groovy design out on his engine under my instructions and guidance ! The number of “Try It Out Types” is growing in all parts of the world ! We are loosing count ?

While the whole World seems to be skeptical about this groovy design ever since it surfaced up ? Most can’t conceive the workings of the grooves due to its nature and location across the combustion chamber ? The very looks of it remind you about induced cracks forming in the most stressed out component of an IC Engine ? The Head ! The next belief is about the trapped unburnt hydro-carbons appearing in the crevices of the grooves are inevitable ? The next factor being the increase in surface area of the combustion chamber due to the grooves is sure to result in heat losses into the system ! The last one being accumulation of carbon deposits in the crevices of the grooves are sure to torch hot spots promoting Knock and Ping in the central part of the combustion chamber ! The simple workings of progressive displacements in the charge through the grooves into the combustion chamber are over looked and shadowed by the above mentioned points by most in the field of Combustion and Innovation. Some think there is no question of any displacements taking place in the charge as it is already locked inside a diminishing cylinder ! Whether the piston moves closer or the head is stationary, either way the effects are the same and the grooves cannot bring about any spectacular effects due to the piston eventually coming to a momentary halt before reversing back on the power stroke ? Some state too much turbulence is bound to increase NOx, UHC’s and promote heat losses. The grooves clogging up in time is the other major concern of most.

Most want to see tests carried out- The difference between ” Grooved and Standard ” maintaining no other changes ~ Just ” Before and After ” Tests ! Period ! Groove cutting is bound to increase the volume of the combustion chamber ‘ thus ‘ bringing down the compression ratio – Be it a 2 stroke or 4 stroke. So why doesn’t some one fix a slightly thicker head gasket or a double head gasket and see if ‘ he or she ‘ will get the same results or if not better results out of lower compression ratios ? Than with one single groove in place inside the combustion chamber ? How come it does not work in reverse ! ? Most people in the discussions and forums will end up looking at each other and Saying ” You missed the point ” ? On the contrary every one else is missing the point too – Question One – Has any ” concept ” of a groove or a channel or a passage ever existed on the face of the combustion chamber all this while ?! The answer is a BIG NO ! We also want to see independent testing ” taken up ” to discover what the groove alone can do. Is everybody’s request ! In some cases, it is even a ” Demand ” ?

Who is preventing any one from doing this ? All you need to do is to sign up a basic MOU with Mr. Sing and go ahead ! Mr. Sing is responsible for this ” groovy effect” as he is the one who conceived this idea in the first place – followed by working 2 and 4 stroke engines, then Petrols (gasoline) and Diesels alike ( CNG / LPG powered vehicle have astounded their owner with the changes from just a single groove), followed by a straightforward US Patent Pat No. 6237579 – Entitled: “Design to improve turbulence in combustion chambers” ! Followed by many many more working engines in India, later in the U.S. and other parts of the World from race cars to daily drivers to ‘ Work-O-holic ‘ Trucks ! Proving, they are running better and cleaner than before and continue to perform with out losing out on any of the power or gaining any form of adverse effect after covering sizable mileage on the “Road and Track ” !
All of this is displayed on the ‘ net ‘ and our web-site, for people to reach out and ‘see for themselves’. A lot of time, money and efforts have gone into compiling all this ” info and data ” to make the world aware of our ” Simple Technology ” that can bring about a Big Change ! In today’s fuel pricing of $3 per Gal and the ever increasing demands for Oil leading to some severe problems in times to come effecting every body on the road ! Bio – Fuels and Hydrogen Gas will not appear over night to fill the vacuum !

It is not that others have not perfected the combustion process by applying all the gadgetry in the world relating to the in-puts of ‘ fuel and air ‘ supported by sophisticated ignition and injection systems that relate to the outsides of the cylinder rather than the insides of the combustion chamber, in which ” Fuel turns into Fire ” ! While our basic design relates to the physical aspects of the internals of the cylinder, which has not changed much since it turned from SV’s to OHV’s in the last 70 Years ! Only the number of valves and cams went up with a centrally located plug ! In some cases it is the Twin Plugs which make them better !
In fact Mr. Sing has ‘out run’ his part of the ” Relay Race ” ? The first part was conceiving the idea / concept from nothing to something after many years of experimenting and Head Banging ! The second part was getting working models to perfect the concept and the third part being – Securing a US Patent, with nothing to back him but a ridiculous idea suported by ” Will Power ” to take it forward ! After achieving all this and more – He, finally coming forward to share all these findings with the ‘ World of Enthusiasts ‘ of the possibilities of operating engines on higher compression ratios and running them “clean” on regular cheap gas with no hang-ups ?

The Head Banging still continues ? Due to the Turbulence the Grooves are generating all over the world ? How many of the ‘ Nayhsayers ‘ have anything close to what he has achieved single-handed with nothing – Almost ” Zero Backing or Funding ” from anyone except a few friends ! Most call his achievements a “One man Show” ! It is also clear, people living in the present Millennium are slowly failing to” rely “on their own Five Senses any more ? Consisting of – Feel – Sound – Smell – Colour – Taste – Heat – Time – Fear, etc, etc ? To evaluate anything ? Sad But True !

The whole world today seems to base their findings on Dynamo Meter Testing / Readings and Lab Reports supported by the world of gadgetry than anything else related to ” Feel, Sound and Thrust “? Any more ? Forgotten are the days of ” Common Sense ” to differentiate things using our very own ‘ 5 ‘ Senses ! ‘ Some still rely on their ‘ Sixth ‘ sense to guide them into the unknown ‘ ? This brings us to the crucial junction of Dyno Testing itself ? What is dyno testing after all – Plotting a graph of – Load Vs Engine Rpm drops at full throttle – From Max Power to the point the engine cannot take it any more and shuts off ! So one identifies the cut-off points of a plotted graph of what an engine is ” producing and delivering ” at full throttle through the entire operating range ! Fair enough !

Due to the Groovy design not existing all this while ? Very little is known about its functioning or workings in actuals or in computer simulations as nobody has ever tested or studied this type of a phenomenon as nothing like this ever existed inside any combustion chamber all this while ! You cannot base this concept on a common yard stick and start assuming present coordinates of what could be possibly happening inside grooved combustion chambers to dispel them as absurd ideas. Meanwhile everyone is aware of what turbulence can do to combustion. It is like blowing into a fire ! Most refer to it as ‘ Mean Squish Velocity ‘ ! (Some call it Squashed) and its resultants ?

All that we and others are noticing ? Are the overhaul combustion efficiency of an engine in relation to lesser fuel consumed Vs the amount of usable torque and power available ” To the daily driver ” ! Starting from Idle speed running upwards to full throttle response under load ! Just out of one Groove in place ! Nothing more ! It is obvious the turbulence is taking over to achieve all this ! And some thing more is also beginning to happen faster inside the cylinder after ignition takes place ? To do what it is doing !

The few Dyno test reports on the website clearly show some improvements in torque and fuel consumption ? The ground realities of Photographs displayed of Grooved ” Bombarded Combustion Chamber ‘halves’ of Piston Tops and Cylinder Heads ” after many many miles have some thing more to “show and say” of what is really happening inside combustion chambers ? One wonders ? – What happened to all the carbon deposits and the un-clogged grooves followed by ” no forms of cracks or deformities ” appearing in the flatness of the head due to the grooves or cuts after all the ‘ hammering and pounding ‘ they have gone through racing at full revs for 200 runs down the drag strip ? This is the most remarkable feat of the grooves, that something unique is happening when ” Fuel is turning into full Power ” ! This really needs to be looked into and talked about ?

More than dispelling the Theory Of ” Grooved ” Combustion ! Every grooved engines has shown faster ” get-a-ways ” from ‘ Start to Finish ‘ with milliseconds gains and up in MPH too ! This seems to be happening with consistency despite the weather conditions or ambient temperature fluctuations ! Oils seems to run a lot cleaner and last out longer – Engines run cooler too – Engines most definitely start to idle a lot slower – End of the day they are seeing a definite reduction in fuel consumptions too ! As most Hot-Rodders carry small fuel tanks to keep the weight down of the expensive fuel they burn in the vicinity of $6 to $9 per Gallon ? Fuel top-ups are easy and very little evaporation takes place to fox anyone with the calculations of before and after ? The emission reports are also showing big drops in UHC and CO out of straight through exhaust pipes. So what do all these observations and improvements indicate and come under? ” Good ? Bad ?? Or Ugly ” ?

The decision is yours ! It makes no difference to us ! As we are seeing the ‘ groovy effect ‘ get better ‘ Day in and Out ‘ ! The next big question is – Does any one have any thing as simple or as effective as a groove or a channel or a passage that can bring about any change in ‘one stroke’ to better existing combustion chambers functions ? Imagine after spending Millions to perfect engine designs ?? Daily drivers can now better their own existing engines further with ‘ Basic hand tools ‘ by carving out a simple man made groove in the most crucial component of the engine called the Combustion Chamber of an Internal Combustion Engine to generate better turbulence and notice ? The fuel burning – Getting even Better, Cleaner and Quieter ! Very Strange ? But True at the same time !

This simple design can ‘also’ enhance burning of any type of fuel including Bio-Fuels of any type, Hydrogen and Gaseous fuels like CNG and LPG in a compressing cylinder due to the progressive turbulence it generates. Remember all these fuels require vast quantities of air to support burning efficiently under compression to produce effective power ! This simple design in fact brings down Mean Squish Velocities because of the location of the grooves or call them passages through the Quench pads by further promoting progressive displacement of the charge along with a lot more collective turbulence in the confined space called the combustion chamber at TDC.

Normal Quench pads are restricted to Mean Squish Velocities that are dependent on ‘piston to head’ clearances. Smaller clearances bring about harsher displacements at TDC further increasing unburnt hydro-carbons traps in the quench area. As we all know – The word ‘quench’ suggests – “Sudden decrease in temperature” ! The very opposite effects start to occur with the groove or a passage in place as the MSV’s drops to almost zero because of the pressure releases through the grooves or call them channels as the piston pounds the head. These trapped energies of pressure releases through the grooves brought about by squishing brings about a lot more collective turbulence in the entire compressing charge achieving a shorter ‘ ignition delay period ‘ that supports quicker combustion in an expanding cylinder. By the time the cylinder expands to the maximum most of the expansion in the hot gases is over resulting in cooler gases exiting through the exhaust port. Ever heard of something like this happening ?

” Never would be the Answer ” ! So what does it take for an Engine Manufacturer to implant the ” Groove or the Channel or the Passage ” into his present design ? Nothing more than the ” Will Power ” to look at something new, out of the BOX ! Called ” A New Design” ! Coming out of years of Fundamental Research ! Meaning to say – Studying – Of what could be happening inside the compressing cylinder when Hydrocarbons are ignited in the presence of compressed Air and end up burning inside an expanding cylinder on the power stroke ?

The Outcome Spells It all Out ! = CO2, CO, NOx, UHC and the left over O2 ! The simplest way to go about testing within our limitations is to make good use of our ‘ 5 ‘senses and also making careful observations of what is happening ? Take a good running condition vehicle / engine – Be it a 4 or a 6 or a V8. Carry out ‘ base-line ‘ road tests encountering traffic in urban conditions followed by highway driving. If staying close to a mountain – A up and down trip for fuel consumption and pulling capabilities ! Followed by basic emission Certification ! Ask the guy if he can compile a little more details about particulate matter and other gases than required by law ! This will be the true ” Proof Of the Pudding ” !

Like they would say ? ” What Goes Up Must Come Down ” ? This is no more true ? The Rockets and Sputniks don’t come back any more ! So we need to say ” What Goes In Must Come Out Of The Tail Pipe ” in the form of An ” Emission Certificate ‘ ! Which would indicate what could be happening inside the cylinder with or without the Catalytic Converter performing as after-burners to fulfill today’s EPA requirements to be street ‘Legal and Worthy’ !

Experiment : Step One : Wash up the engine bay in question and start the process of – Pulling ‘ them’ heads out and cleaning them out – “Shave ‘ them ‘ heads real flat” by 40 to 50 Thou of an inch. Carefully Plant a single groove pointing at the plug in each chamber ! No more as shown in the many pictures ! – Grind ‘ them ‘ valves to their respective seats – ( No porting or polishing needed – just cleaning and scraping out the carbon carefully on the ‘ piston tops and head ‘ without any of it entering into the ring channels.
Lovingly assemble the engine with new gaskets, seals, plugs , air, oil and petrol filters with recommended new oils ( Not fancy oils ! ) Ensure timing belt / fan, a/c and power steering belts are tightened to specs and fill coolants to the brim and do your ‘ pri-fright ‘ checks ? Don’t forger to say your Prayers before start-ups ? They help !

“Fire her up and let her idle till the water temp comes up” observe for leaks and squeaks if any – Next, hit the gas pedal to the floor couple of times and see the red line pop up ? Go to the nearest gas station and fill her up to the brim and hit the road and do the same round-about 150 mile trip (or whatever) to feel all the differences !! No running-in is required as you have just pulled the heads out and fixed them back after Grooving ! (Grooves don’t need running in !)

Then for proof ? Go back to the same gas station, fill up again and check the new emissions report. There is the proof that a hundred dyno’s and even the Labs at Sandia couldn’t tell you. On the other hand, if you have a little faith, you can step on it a little harder, means on the gas pedal to get the feel from the Seat -Of-Your-Pants and keep a tab of what the fuel consumption is like. Don’t forget the plug readings will exactly tell you what is happening inside the engine ! Comparing the month before to the month after. Your back will sure start to ache a little more sitting on that extra cash in your wallet, you might have to get a handbag instead. Sorry! 🙁

From the beginning, we have insisted in ‘ Displaying ‘ the Plugs ” before and after” showing the facts of what starts to happen. I have, and still suggest, this simple ” Proof in the Pudding ” to every person on earth who has interacted with me regarding the groove and their “after – effects ?” Find out for yourself if you have ever seen cleaner plugs and the flowing torque from idle speeds onwards in silence with no ping or jingle bells ringing under the hood ?

I started from where Sir Harry Recardo left the side-valve heads, with his Discovery of the Quench pads almost 90 years ago! Next, my efforts to dyno test my design on the largest quench pads available were the ‘L’ Heads from Briggs and Stratton engines and the Dyno tests at ARAI, costing me almost $3000 + ?! – What about the results of 42.5 % reductions in fuel consumption with increases in Torque and Power too at full throttle ? Nobody has been able to dispute this YET ! Simple, you don’t have to? You can take one of these ancient engines and plant a single groove by yourself. You will see the same thing happening all over again ! This is Not Rocket Science !

It is called progressive ‘ Turbulence ‘ that causes a better mix in the compressing charge ! Once ignited ! Multiple spikes of flame-fronts take over to ” Finish ” the process of combustion in the shortest time frame through the grooves ! Resulting in greater expansions in the hot gasses to work on the piston with no fuel left to detonate or ping or pollute ? As simple as that ! Want to take a Bet ?! Lets get the basics of an IC Engine right.

Engine size depends on Bore and Stroke. Longer stroke means a taller engine. Finally, the cylinder and the bottom-end confine the displacement of any engine in cc’s or in cubic inches. Ever since the first ICE’s fired-up, the bores have been circular or call them round and the pistons, con rods and the crank have more or less looked and functioned the same ! Except for developments in ‘ lighter and stronger ‘ material technologies with reduction in frictional losses more attributed to smaller contact and surface areas with better protection from lubricating oils. This seals the limitations of the bottom-end !

Coming to the top end – the valve seat diameter along with the valve lift gives us the ‘ time / area ‘ of flow characteristics of any cylinder head – the number of valves increase this factor – intelligent makeup’s of ports and manifolds add a new dimension to pulse waves filling and extraction of exhaust gases bringing about optimum cylinder filling. Further force feeding with turbos and super charging enlarges the displacement. Over stuffing any engine has its limits too. Most legends in the business of volumetric efficiency have stated and accepted a ‘universal truth’, that – What happens 1/4 ” of either side of the valve seat is more important and power related, than any other factor in the engine ? This brings us to the conclusion ! Bigger the better ! Some say Taller is better and Torquer ?!

What we are addressing is about burning efficiency of fuel and not about the amounts of ” Fuel and Air ” you are stuffing in – by ways of volumetric efficiency or by way of RPMs the engine can accept with out falling apart ! We are talking about what is happening 1/2 an inch on ‘ either side ‘ of TDC – Piston movements – Ending of the compression stroke and the Beginning of the power stroke ! These milliseconds of the piston reversing direction from ‘ Up To Down ‘ is the most crucial phase of the power stroke (! While fuel is turning into fire) and reflects in the power outputs and efficiency of any engine regardless of any other factor ! Be it Super-charged or Turbo- charged or Boosted by NOS – N2O – called ” Laughing Gas ” ! It is at this crucial moment close to tdc the ” Groovy Design ” generates its maximum effects on combustion with the help of turbulence more than any other factor or related factors to combustion chamber designs ! Including twin plugs !

It is an accepted fact ” Turbulence is the essence to more complete combustion in the shortest time frame ” ? Every Text Book Says It ! Run any grooved engine on regular fuel and show me what you achieve in comparison to anything else ! Still better, tow-load the vehicle ‘to the brim’ and repeat these tests !

Lets see what performs better ! Grooved or Non-Grooved ? Wait and watch which one starts to Knocks or Ping first ! And also see which of the engines can run on higher compression ratios using regular gas ?
For all those who say that ‘ just ‘ the groove will bring down compression and don’t know how to compensate for it ? Need to first understand what is really happening inside the cylinder with the help of turbulence. It Is also an accepted fact world wide ! Bringing up compression, brings out the best in any engine ? Till you hit ” Detonation or Ping ” ? And lose it all ? A compromise between compression and power delivery has to be struck to achieve reliability in any engine !

With the groove you can run much higher compression ratios with no problems. As we told you the plugs are the best indicators! next comes the tailpipe emissions. Thinner gaskets come much later ?
The changes in performance are remarkable enough, added to cleaner oils, lower operating temperatures, pristine plugs, elimination of Knocking and Ping will surely add years of life to your existing engine while getting more power and saving fuel in the process. Enough with your ‘ Die-Secting ‘ the groovy design with testing ! When the time comes it will happen !

For now ! Enjoying the savings will show the ” Big-Wigs ” that there is something else happening inside the cylinder which is ‘ ahead ‘ of its time ! Every book on Combustion has always stressed the need for turbulence to improve burning of ” any fuel ” ! Hasn’t It ?
So what prevents this Discovery from achieving ” Better, Quicker and Quieter ” burning out of any type of Fuel ? Be it Gaseous or Liquids ! We have wasted 6 full years debating over – How can it work ? Instead of seeing ” How does it work ” ? Imagine how much Fossil Fuels (Both ‘ Gasoline and Diesel ‘) could have been saved from converting into CO2 and harmful emissions making their way up into the very air we breath ‘ day in and day out ‘ ? Not to forget the ” Hard Cash ” that changed hands to buy all this Oil that went up in smoke in the first place in the last few years ? Running into Billions…? It could have been put to better use than the thoughtless Burn-Ups !(Since my Discovery was published in May 2001 AD ?)
Hundreds of people are enjoying grooves in their engines and soon it will be thousands more. Here’s to a better World ! But it will be some time before solar powered or hydrogen or fuel-cell hot-rods will swarm the highways ? So let’s get started ! and prepare for the day ?

Much before that ? The effects of ” Global Warming ” would be sending most of us through ” Sauna Baths ” of Hardships ? All because of our senseless activities of creating ‘ CO2 ‘ in large quantities and blowing them into our own atmosphere with our making any sacrifices to curb our ‘ whims and fancies ‘ of burning rubber ? Not to forget all the other trash we also dispose thoughtlessly back into nature on a “daily basis” as if it was the only Official DUMP !
All this and more has already brought in lasting effects during our own life times for certain ! Many parts of the world are experiencing the ” extremes of effects ” followed by uncertainties of weathering “storms and droughts ” on a weekly basis ! While the rest of the world is failing to understand the seriousness of these implications and consequences directly relating to all this ” man made hyper activities ” mounting up like ‘ Storm Clouds ‘ over us ! One wonders if we humans have any respect or concerns at all towards Mother Nature that surrounds and supports us ?

Ever step humans have taken has only destroyed nature two steps. Some feel nature can’t keep pace to restore itself any more at the pace we humans are flying around and tearing it apart to pieces? Some call it – End of the Road ? – Some with a little bit of Wisdom call it ” A Dead End Road ” ! With little hope to ‘ reverse back ‘ ?? Would probably be an appropriate statement of this ” Millennium ” ! ? Soon the famous ” rope trick ” will run out of rope ……. ?
If you have something simpler ‘ as solutions ‘ to get us ‘ All ‘ out of this ” Man Made Mess ” called MMM ! You have the ‘ Biggest Opportunity ‘ and Openings NOW to prove your ability to the ” needy and greedy ” before time runs out for Good ? Soon the World will be looking out for ‘ simple ideas ‘ with open ‘arms and hands’ as solutions to solve this MMM ! As we humans would have gone broke with all the ‘ leftovers ‘ of enormous Wealth’s of ? What we have created . . . Some things called ? “Black Holes” of CO2 rising up into the Skies ! Each Day ! Making it .. very very difficult for all living species on Mother Earth ? To live . . . Most are starting to feel the heat ‘ coming on ‘ from all directions ? Soon …. It will be every body’s turn ! ? Amen ! Remember ~ ” No Running away from Hard Facts ” ! E=mc2 = More the compression greater the Thermal Efficiency out of any IC Engine, be it a 2 or a 4 stroke. The Groove or call it a Channel or a Passage allows the usage of higher compression ratios to run efficiently on regular gas with out Pinging or Knocking !

Every drop of ” Oil ” saved will Only result in that much lesser ” Green House Gases ” going into our Atmosphere ? If we don’t get thinking fast, we will be left over with nothing more but ” Green House Gases ” trapping us and our progress for Good !
Sing !!!